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INTRODUCTION Industrial hygienists, as well as many other related professionals, often deal with regulatory agencies, interpreting and complying with policies, regulation, standards, etc. Fortunately, regulatory agencies often make this information readily available online, and this certainly is the case for OSHA. Proprietary standards, like those developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) also are online, but only if you purchase them. This exercise is intended to introduce students to these online resources. After completing this laboratory session, students should be able to: • Find, read and understand OSHA standards • Interpret standards using OSHA documents • Use OSHA computerized resources • Get information about other (non-OSHA) standards “You don’t have to like regulations, but you must be able to deal with them” Assignment (due Wed the week after the lab and before class to be on time). 20% penalty for being late. 1) Complete these sheets and attach them to your report write up, then turn in to course instructor. 2) For the Report, a) Summarize in your own words the purpose of this lab exercise (a paragraph). b) Complete the following and submit a short write-up: i) OSHA e-tools. (1) Choose one of the new OSHA e-tools and become familiar with it. (2) Briefly explain (one or two paragraphs) your opinion on this e-tool, including usefulness to IH/Safety professionals, managers and workers, and what you think is the most important learning tool provided to the user. ii) MSHA Video Clips. (1) View one of the video clips under the Education & Training link. (2) Write a brief summary of the video (at least a paragraph). (3) Include what you believe is the most important learning that the video provides and then provide your opinion of the quality and effectiveness of video. (at least a paragraph) iii) OSHA Letters of “Standard Interpretations” and go to the Standard # Tab (1) Find a topic of interest within 1910 and review a “Standard Interpretation” of a question that a person from an industry asked of OSHA (2) Print the document and provide a summary paragraph of the question and the OSHA interpretation. EXERCISES: Using the Internet, complete the following. 1) Introduction to OSHA Standards (sections listed “a-e”) a) Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Connect to the OSHA web site, (www.osha.gov) i) Select the “Regulations” drop down menu tap and click on “OSHA Law & Regulations” to determine which “Parts” apply to which industry: (1) General Industry: ____________________ (2) Construction: _________________________ (3) Agriculture: _________________________ (4) Shipyards: _________________________ (5) Marine terminals: _________________________ (6) Longshoring: _________________________ ii) Organization of a part (1) Select Part 1910 and go to Subpart A (a) Select 1910.1 “Purpose and Scope” (i) The law behind the OSHA standards: ___________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ (ii) This OSH Act obligated the Secretary (of Labor) to promulgate, as soon as practical, any standards that are either__________________________________ or _______________________________ to improve safety and health for employees. (b) Select 1910.2 “Definitions” (i) A “national consensus standard” has been promulgated by a nationally recognized ______________________________ where persons affected by the standard have reached substantial _______________________ on its adoption. (ii) “Employer” does not include____________________________________________ (c) Select “1910.5” (i) OSHA standards are described as “vertical standards” which are for a specific industry, and “horizontal standards” which apply generally. Paragraphs ___________________________describe this relationship and offer examples for shipyard personal protective equipment and noise exposure in paperboard mills. (d) Go back to “1910 – Table of Contents” and determine which subparts apply to: (i) Personal Protective equipment ________________________________ (ii) Fire Protection ____________________________________ (iii) Welding, cutting and Brazing ________________________________ (iv) Special industries ____________________________________ (v) Toxic and hazardous substances _____________________________ iii) Organization of a standard (1) “1910.1026 – Chromium (VI)”, is the general industry standard for Chromium (VI). This standard will be used as an example for this lab exercise, and it will introduce students to a current issue that may be a factor in their internship. (2) Also, what is the OSHA standard number for Chromium (VI) in construction? ____________ (3) OSHA standards are organized by paragraphs. Go to 1910.1026 paragraph a, the scope. (a) Does this standard apply to situations where chromium-containing materials cannot release chromium (VI) at levels above the TWA? ______ (4) Definitions (paragraph b). (a) What does the term “PLHCP” mean? ________________________________________ ___________________________. Being a PLHCP allows one to? __________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (b) What is the “action level”? ___________________________________ (5) Permissible Exposure Limit (paragraph c). (a) What is the PEL? __________________calculated as an ______________________ ____________________________________ (6) Exposure Assessment (paragraph d). (a) Employers must monitor to characterize full shift exposure on each _____________, for each _______________________, in each _________________________. (b) Where representative sampling is done, the employer must sample the employee(s) expected to have the ________________chromium (VI) exposures. (c) Employee exposure monitoring at least _____________ if exposures are above the PEL. (d) Air monitoring methods must have an accuracy of __________________with a statistical confidence level of _____________________. (7) Paragraph (e), Regulated areas. Employers must establish a regulated area when exposures to chromium (VI) are reasonably expected to be above _____________________ (8) Paragraph (f), Methods of compliance. Engineering and work practice controls are required to reduce exposures unless employee exposure does not exceed the PEL for more than ____________ days per year. (9) Paragraph (g) and (h), respirators and protective equipment. Protective equipment shall be provided at _______ cost to the employee (10) Paragraph (i), hygiene areas and practices. (i), hygiene. Lunchroom areas must be as free as ______________ from chromium (VI) contamination. (11) Paragraph (j), housekeeping. Dry sweeping is acceptable only if ___________________ ________________________________________________________________________ (12) Paragraph (k), medical surveillance. (a) How long must an employee be exposed above the action level before medical surveillance is required? _________________________ (b) How many times per year must an employee get a medical exam? ________________ (13) Paragraph (l), communication of chromium (VI) hazards to employees. Employee must be able to demonstrate knowledge of “this section”. What does OSHA mean by “this section”? ___________________ (14) Recordkeeping, paragraph (m). This paragraph refers to another OSHA standard, 1910.1020. How long must records be kept under this standard? _________________ (15) Paragraph (n), dates. For employees having more than 20 employees, the standard became effective ___________________________. (16) Appendix A details a settlement between OSHA, an industry group (“SFIC”), the Public Citizen Health Research Group (“HRG”), and a union known as the ____________________ b) Federal Register. Any change to a standard must be documented in the Federal Register i) Go back to the main OSHA site index and menu and select “Federal Register”. ii) Search for “Chromium” and note the item, “2006 – 02/28/2006 – Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium – 71:10099-10385”. 71 refers to the Federal Register volume, in this case, 2006 (there is a new volume each year). Federal register pages 10099-10385 apply to this reference. (1) According to the section “VII. Significance of Risk: Table VII-3”, estimated risk from lifetime occupational exposure to Cr(VI) at the new PEL is __________ excess lung cancer deaths per 1000 workers. Previously, the risk was _________ deaths per 1000 workers. iii) Under section “VIII. Summary of the Final Economic and Regulatory Flexibility Analysis” in subsection “D. Costs”, the costs employers are expected to incur to comply with the final standard are __________million per year iv) The section “XV. Summary and Explanation of the Standards” addresses OSHA’s approach to the standard. Under this section XV find subsection “Portland Cement”. (1) OSHA excluded portland cement from the rule because the “current ______________________________________________ effectively limits Cr(VI) inhalation exposures” from cement to levels below the new Cr(VI) PEL and Action Level. (2) Under section (e) “Regulated Areas”. OSHA has not included a requirement for “regulated areas” in construction and shipyard workplaces, due to the “expected _______________ _______________ of establishing regulated areas for operations in these sectors”. (3) Under section (j) Housekeeping. Housekeeping provisions are important because they minimize “additional sources of exposure that ________________ ________________ generally are not designed to address”. (4) Under section (k) Medical Surveillance. OSHA considers it “appropriate to permit any health care professional to perform medical examinations and procedures provided under the standard when they are allowed by ______________ ___________ to do so”. c) Interpretations. OSHA publishes letters of interpretation to aid in understanding how standards should be applied in the work setting. i) Select “Interpretations of OSHA Standards” from A to Z index and search for 1910.1026. (1) For welders working on stainless steel in confined spaces, OSHA considers employers to be in compliance if “they use engineering and work practice controls to the extent feasible and supplement those controls with __________________________ to comply with the PEL” d) Compliance Directives (CPL). OSHA issues CPLs to aid its employees in consistent enforcement of a standard. These can also be valuable references for us in understanding how to interpret standards. i) Go back to the A to Z index and Select “Compliance (CPL’s) Directives” and search for 1910.1026 to find the CPL for Chromium (VI) inspections (CPL 02-02-074). (1) Under what circumstance will the compliance officer conduct personal sampling? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ e) Guidance materials. Provides information on specific safety/health hazards as well as industries. i) Use the A to Z index to find the “Safety and Health Topics” page and search the alphabetical listing to find “hexavalent chromium”, then go to the “Exposures & Controls “section. (1) For control of dust and spray in “Auto Body Repair” shops, OSHA recommends guidance prepared by ________________________________________________________________ (2) Download the pdf for the Small Entity Compliance Guide for the Hexavalent Chromium Standards. (The link is under the “Controlling Exposure” Subsection) (i) Under “Methods of Compliance”, OSHA recommends engineering controls of substitution, isolation and ________________________. 2) OSHA e-tools. These are web based interactive training tools on occupational safety and health topics. a) Go to the A to Z index and select the “e-tools” link. i) Browse through the list resources, and see how they work. Notice the new “e-Matrix” for hurricane response. Choose one of the new OSHA e-tools and become familiar with it. ii) Remember that as part of your lab write up you will briefly explain your opinion on this e-tool. 3) MSHA (Mine Safety and Health Administration). Mission is to prevent death, disease, and injury from mining and to promote safe and healthful workplaces for the Nation’s miners. a) Go to (www.msha.gov), select Regulations and find “Standards and Regulations” which brings you to a page with several ways to view “30 CFR Mineral Resources Parts 1 through 199”. i) Identify which “Subchapters” apply to: (1) Education and Training: _________. (2) Metal and Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health: ___________. (3) Coal Mine Safety and Health: __________. ii) Use the “Search” box to answer the following questions: (1) When does MSHA have jurisdiction over tree cutting? _________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ (2) Under 30 CFR part 46, must “competent persons” be approved by MSHA? ________ (3) Under the “MSHA’s Handbook Series” page. For “PH06-IV-1 Metal and Nonmetal Health Inspections Procedures, Chapter 2”, how many minutes does MSHA use for the sampling duration when calculating a Shift Weighted Average (SWA) exposure? ________________. (4) As explained in the “PH03-III-1 – Education and Training Procedures”, there are “__________ Approval Methods” that MSHA can use to approve training instructors. 4) Other Standards. Many non-OHSA standards may be applicable, but they are less “user friendly”. a) Go to http://www.astm.org/ and find ASTM D6245-12, Standard Guide for Using Indoor Carbon Dioxide Concentrations to Evaluate Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation”. i) How much does it cost to get a pdf of the 10-page standard? _______________ b) Go to http://www.ansi.org/ and find standard Z87.1-2015, Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices. i) How much does it cost to get this standard? __________________ c) Go to http://www.nfpa.org/ and find “NFPA 704: Standard for the Identification of the Fire Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response” (latest edition). i) How much does it cost to buy this for non-members? _________________

INTRODUCTION

Industrial hygienists, as well as many other related professionals, often deal with regulatory agencies, interpreting and complying with policies, regulation, standards, etc.  Fortunately, regulatory agencies often make this information readily available online, and this certainly is the case for OSHA.  Proprietary standards, like those developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) also are online, but only if you purchase them.

 

This exercise is intended to introduce students to these online resources.

 

After completing this laboratory session, students should be able to:

 

  • Find, read and understand OSHA standards
  • Interpret standards using OSHA documents
  • Use OSHA computerized resources
  • Get information about other (non-OSHA) standards

 

“You don’t have to like regulations, but you must be able to deal with them”

 

Assignment (due Wed the week after the lab and before class to be on time). 20% penalty for being late.

 

  • Complete these sheets and attach them to your report write up, then turn in to course instructor.

 

  • For the Report,
    1. Summarize in your own words the purpose of this lab exercise (a paragraph).
    2. Complete the following and submit a short write-up:
      1. OSHA e-tools.
        • Choose one of the new OSHA e-tools and become familiar with it.
        • Briefly explain (one or two paragraphs) your opinion on this e-tool, including usefulness to IH/Safety professionals, managers and workers, and what you think is the most important learning tool provided to the user.
      2. MSHA Video Clips.
        • View one of the video clips under the Education & Training link.
        • Write a brief summary of the video (at least a paragraph).
        • Include what you believe is the most important learning that the video provides and then provide your opinion of the quality and effectiveness of video. (at least a paragraph)
  • OSHA Letters of “Standard Interpretations” and go to the Standard # Tab
    • Find a topic of interest within 1910 and review a “Standard Interpretation” of a question that a person from an industry asked of OSHA
    • Print the document and provide a summary paragraph of the question and the OSHA interpretation.

 

EXERCISES: Using the Internet, complete the following.

  • Introduction to OSHA Standards (sections listed “a-e”)
    1. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Connect to the OSHA web site, (www.osha.gov)
      1. Select the “Regulations” drop down menu tap and click on “OSHA Law & Regulations” to determine which “Parts” apply to which industry:
        • General Industry: ____________________
        • Construction: _________________________
        • Agriculture: _________________________
        • Shipyards: _________________________
        • Marine terminals: _________________________
        • Longshoring: _________________________
      2. Organization of a part
        • Select Part 1910 and go to Subpart A
          • Select 1910.1 “Purpose and Scope”
            • The law behind the OSHA standards: ___________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

  • This OSH Act obligated the Secretary (of Labor) to promulgate, as soon as practical, any standards that are either__________________________________ or _______________________________ to improve safety and health for employees.
  • Select 1910.2 “Definitions”
    • A “national consensus standard” has been promulgated by a nationally recognized ______________________________ where persons affected by the standard have reached substantial _______________________ on its adoption.
    • “Employer” does not include____________________________________________
  • Select “1910.5”
    • OSHA standards are described as “vertical standards” which are for a specific industry, and “horizontal standards” which apply generally. Paragraphs ___________________________describe this relationship and offer examples for shipyard personal protective equipment and noise exposure in paperboard mills.
  • Go back to “1910 – Table of Contents” and determine which subparts apply to:
    • Personal Protective equipment ________________________________
    • Fire Protection ____________________________________
    • Welding, cutting and Brazing ________________________________
    • Special industries ____________________________________
    • Toxic and hazardous substances _____________________________
  • Organization of a standard
    • “1910.1026 – Chromium (VI)”, is the general industry standard for Chromium (VI). This standard will be used as an example for this lab exercise, and it will introduce students to a current issue that may be a factor in their internship.
    • Also, what is the OSHA standard number for Chromium (VI) in construction? ____________
    • OSHA standards are organized by paragraphs. Go to 1910.1026 paragraph a, the scope.
      • Does this standard apply to situations where chromium-containing materials cannot release chromium (VI) at levels above the TWA? ______
    • Definitions (paragraph b).
      • What does the term “PLHCP” mean? ________________________________________ ___________________________. Being a PLHCP allows one to? __________________ _______________________________________________________________________
      • What is the “action level”? ___________________________________
    • Permissible Exposure Limit (paragraph c).
      • What is the PEL? __________________calculated as an  ______________________

____________________________________

  • Exposure Assessment (paragraph d).
    • Employers must monitor to characterize full shift exposure on each _____________, for each _______________________, in each _________________________.
    • Where representative sampling is done, the employer must sample the employee(s) expected to have the ________________chromium (VI) exposures.
    • Employee exposure monitoring at least _____________ if exposures are above the PEL.
    • Air monitoring methods must have an accuracy of __________________with a statistical confidence level of _____________________.
  • Paragraph (e), Regulated areas. Employers must establish a regulated area when exposures to chromium (VI) are reasonably expected to be above _____________________
  • Paragraph (f), Methods of compliance. Engineering and work practice controls are required to reduce exposures unless employee exposure does not exceed the PEL for more than ____________ days per year.
  • Paragraph (g) and (h), respirators and protective equipment. Protective equipment shall be provided at  _______ cost to the employee
  • Paragraph (i), hygiene areas and practices. (i), hygiene. Lunchroom areas must be as free as ______________ from chromium (VI) contamination.
  • Paragraph (j), housekeeping. Dry sweeping is acceptable only if ___________________ ________________________________________________________________________
  • Paragraph (k), medical surveillance.
    • How long must an employee be exposed above the action level before medical surveillance is required? _________________________
    • How many times per year must an employee get a medical exam? ________________
  • Paragraph (l), communication of chromium (VI) hazards to employees. Employee must be able to demonstrate knowledge of “this section”. What does OSHA mean by “this section”?  ___________________
  • Recordkeeping, paragraph (m). This paragraph refers to another OSHA standard, 1910.1020. How long must records be kept under this standard? _________________
  • Paragraph (n), dates. For employees having more than 20 employees, the standard became effective ___________________________.
  • Appendix A details a settlement between OSHA, an industry group (“SFIC”), the Public Citizen Health Research Group (“HRG”), and a union known as the ____________________

 

  1. Federal Register. Any change to a standard must be documented in the Federal Register
    1. Go back to the main OSHA site index and menu and select “Federal Register”.
    2. Search for “Chromium” and note the item, “2006 – 02/28/2006 – Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium – 71:10099-10385”. 71 refers to the Federal Register volume, in this case, 2006 (there is a new volume each year).  Federal register pages 10099-10385 apply to this reference.
      • According to the section “ Significance of Risk: Table VII-3”, estimated risk from lifetime occupational exposure to Cr(VI) at the new PEL is __________ excess lung cancer deaths per 1000 workers. Previously, the risk was _________ deaths per 1000 workers.
  • Under section “ Summary of the Final Economic and Regulatory Flexibility Analysis” in subsection “D. Costs”, the costs employers are expected to incur to comply with the final standard are __________million per year
  1. The section “ Summary and Explanation of the Standards” addresses OSHA’s approach to the standard. Under this section XV find subsection “Portland Cement”.
    • OSHA excluded portland cement from the rule because the “current ______________________________________________ effectively limits Cr(VI) inhalation exposures” from cement to levels below the new Cr(VI) PEL and Action Level.
    • Under section (e) “Regulated Areas”. OSHA has not included a requirement for “regulated areas” in construction and shipyard workplaces, due to the “expected _______________ _______________ of establishing regulated areas for operations in these sectors”.
    • Under section (j) Housekeeping. Housekeeping provisions are important because they minimize “additional sources of exposure that ________________ ________________ generally are not designed to address”.
    • Under section (k) Medical Surveillance. OSHA considers it “appropriate to permit any health care professional to perform medical examinations and procedures provided under the standard when they are allowed by ______________ ___________ to do so”.

 

  1. OSHA publishes letters of interpretation to aid in understanding how standards should be applied in the work setting.
    1. Select “Interpretations of OSHA Standards” from A to Z index and search for 1026.
      • For welders working on stainless steel in confined spaces, OSHA considers employers to be in compliance if “they use engineering and work practice controls to the extent feasible and supplement those controls with __________________________ to comply with the PEL”

 

  1. Compliance Directives (CPL). OSHA issues CPLs to aid its employees in consistent enforcement of a standard. These can also be valuable references for us in understanding how to interpret standards.
    1. Go back to the A to Z index and Select “Compliance (CPL’s) Directives” and search for 1910.1026 to find the CPL for Chromium (VI) inspections (CPL 02-02-074).
      • Under what circumstance will the compliance officer conduct personal sampling? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

  1. Guidance materials. Provides information on specific safety/health hazards as well as industries.
    1. Use the A to Z index to find the “Safety and Health Topics” page and search the alphabetical listing to find “hexavalent chromium”, then go to the “Exposures & Controls “section.
      • For control of dust and spray in “Auto Body Repair” shops, OSHA recommends guidance prepared by ________________________________________________________________
      • Download the pdf for the Small Entity Compliance Guide for the Hexavalent Chromium Standards. (The link is under the “Controlling Exposure” Subsection)
        • Under “Methods of Compliance”, OSHA recommends engineering controls of substitution, isolation and ________________________.

 

 

 

 

 

  • OSHA e-tools. These are web based interactive training tools on occupational safety and health topics.
    1. Go to the A to Z index and select the “e-tools” link.
      1. Browse through the list resources, and see how they work. Notice the new “e-Matrix” for hurricane response.  Choose one of the new OSHA e-tools and become familiar with it.
      2. Remember that as part of your lab write up you will briefly explain your opinion on this e-tool.

 

  • MSHA (Mine Safety and Health Administration). Mission is to prevent death, disease, and injury from mining and to promote safe and healthful workplaces for the Nation’s miners.
    1. Go to (www.msha.gov), select Regulations and find “Standards and Regulations” which brings you to a page with several ways to view “30 CFR Mineral Resources Parts 1 through 199”.
      1. Identify which “Subchapters” apply to:
        • Education and Training: _________.
        • Metal and Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health: ___________.
        • Coal Mine Safety and Health: __________.
      2. Use the “Search” box to answer the following questions:
        • When does MSHA have jurisdiction over tree cutting? _________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

  • Under 30 CFR part 46, must “competent persons” be approved by MSHA? ________
  • Under the “MSHA’s Handbook Series” page. For “PH06-IV-1 Metal and Nonmetal Health Inspections Procedures, Chapter 2”, how many minutes does MSHA use for the sampling duration when calculating a Shift Weighted Average (SWA) exposure?
  • As explained in the “PH03-III-1 – Education and Training Procedures”, there are “__________ Approval Methods” that MSHA can use to approve training instructors.

 

  • Other Standards. Many non-OHSA standards may be applicable, but they are less “user friendly”.
    1. Go to http://www.astm.org/ and find ASTM D6245-12, Standard Guide for Using Indoor Carbon Dioxide Concentrations to Evaluate Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation”.
      1. How much does it cost to get a pdf of the 10-page standard? _______________
    2. Go to http://www.ansi.org/ and find standard Z87.1-2015, Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices.
      1. How much does it cost to get this standard? __________________
    3. Go to http://www.nfpa.org/ and find “NFPA 704: Standard for the Identification of the Fire Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response” (latest edition).

How much does it cost to buy this for non-members? _________________

Interested in a PLAGIARISM-FREE paper based on these particular instructions?...with 100% confidentiality?

Order Now