1) Describe the path a molecule of water might follow through the hydrologic cycle from the ocean
Evaporation takes place and the water molecule is taken high up in the atmosphere, where temperatures are very low. Continued accumulation of the molecules of water saturates the air and hence rain clouds are formed though condensation process. Precipitation in the form of rainfall, snow then occurs. Where precipitation occurs depends on whether or not the clouds were transported to land by advection process, or remained in the ocean. The cycle is at this point complete and the process starts all over again.
2) to land and back again.
In the case where the clouds containing the water molecules are transported to land from the ocean by air currents through a process called advection, condensation as well as precipitation occurs over land. Some of the water on reaching the ground evaporates to the atmosphere while some penetrate to the ground to form underground water. But the largest portion of the water goes back to the ocean in the form of surface run off through streams and rivers.
3) Describe the least one example of the environmental costs of water diversion from river to farms or cities.
Water pollution: On diversion to farms, the water is mainly used for irrigation purposes. Yet in these farms chemical fertilizers and pesticides are widely applied. The overflow of water is then released back to the rivers, often without proper treatment, carrying with it elements of the chemical fertilizers as well as those of pesticides from the farms, thus polluting river water downstream as well as lakes, seas and oceans into which he rivers drain their water.
4) Explain the difference between point and non-point pollution. Which is harder to control? Why?
Point pollution is pollution that originates from a single source. Non-point pollution originates from many points. Non point pollution is harder to control because the sources are many thus not easily identifiable.
1) How does tectonic plate movement create ocean basins, mid ocean ridges, and volcanoes?
The movement of tectonic plates could be in the direction of each other or drifting apart. When the plate drifts apart, and it so happens that their boundary is in the ocean, the result is to open a gap in this boundary. This gap, depending on the extend of movement, could form an oceanic basin, a mid oceanic ridge, or even a volcano.
2) Describe some of the mining, processing, and drilling methods that can degrade water or air quality.
Underground mining pollutes underground water. Most mineral processing methods consume a lot of water and use chemicals that pollutes water in rivers when released back to them.
3) What resources, aside from minerals themselves, can be saved by recycling?
Water resources, Forests,
1) What are the major sources of global energy?
Hydroelectricity, Wood fuel, oil, and electricity from nuclear-powered power stations.
2) What are proven-in-place reserves?
These the amount of oil that has been estimated to exist in an oil ground/field.
3) What are biofuels, how could they contribute to sustainability?
Biofuels are fuels that are extracted from products of plants. The sources of these fuels are renewable thus support sustainability.
Shortle, J, & Gerrard, D. (2001). Environmental policies for agricultural pollution control. NY: CABI.
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