Interested in a PLAGIARISM-FREE paper based on these particular instructions?...with 100% confidentiality?

Order Now

AMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES

A MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES

Introduction
Motivation is described as the driving force behind individuals’ achievements. It is the force that gives people the morale to achieve their goals. Motivation is an exceptionally powerful tool in human resource management. Any competent manager needs to implement appropriate motivational techniques to improve the performance of their workforce. Motivation reduces pain and maximizes pleasure at work. Motivated individuals rarely get fatigued; their performance is always highly rated. There are several motivational theories; these include incentive theories, cognitive dissonance theory and drive-reduction theories among others (Beck, 2004).
Incentive theory
Incentive theory states that individuals should be rewarded for their excellent results. This means that a reward, either physical or abstract should be given to a person after the occurrence of an action. This initiative is aimed at encouraging an individual and even put him or her in a position to do better. Studies confirm that instant reward has a greater effect to the recipient. It is believed that the longer the duration the lesser the impact. It is advisable for the administration to reward exemplary performance instantly.
Drive reduction theory
Drive reduction theory is derived from the hypothesis that human beings have specific biological drivers. This theory is firmly based on the concept of feedback back control system. Under this theory, the management can propose something like monetary gifts. These monetary gifts will be given out to individuals who meet certain conditions set out by the management. Monetary gifts are considered as the driving force in this case. Therefore, workers will focus on the money rather than the task ahead thus the management would have reduced the drive.
Cognitive dissonance theory
Cognitive dissonance theory presupposes that human beings possess the motivational drive to lessen dissonance. Individuals achieve this by altering their beliefs, attitudes or actions. Cognitive dissonance happens when a person experiences a certain amount of discomfort as a result of lack of similarity between two cognitions. Organizations can apply this hypothesis by constantly changing their working structures (Beck, 2004).
Application in the work place
I would apply drive reduction theory in the work place. This is because I believe that employees need something to revitalize their performance. Stress is among the leading cases of poor performance among many employees. This means that, apart from putting mechanisms in place to reduce stress among employees and improve time management, employees need to receive some gains after accomplishing their goals. This mighty seem similar to incentive theory but in the real sense, it is quite different from the former in terms of effect. Under drive reduction theory, certain privileges would be given to employees who perform better.
CLICK HERE TO ORDER FOR A FULLY RESEARCHED PAPER ON THIS TOPIC AND OTHER RELATED TOPICS FROM A PROFESSIONAL WRITER AT capitalessaywriting.com…………………………….  
This may in the form of monetary gains, promotion and other valuable allowances that would reduce the drive. The drive in this case are the duties assigned to employees. Employees get motivation when they are assured of a reward at the end of their task. Focus will now be drawn to accomplishing the task and meeting their reward as opposite to the task ahead. This motivational theory is better compared to incentive theory in the sense that, incentives only make a significant impact during initial stages. As the practice continues, the impact diminishes. Employees will no longer be motivated by such actions. Individuals get motivated only if they receive rewards as a surprise. Incentives should not be predictable (Beck, 2004).
Self directed theory

Since early 1970’s, self directed learning has been on the spot in adult education. The

Comparison of adult education in higher learning institutions as compared to the youth is

based on the age of the learners. (Liang et al 2011, p 209-215). Self directed learning is

essential and natural which promotes satisfaction within human beings. The theory of self-

directed learning can therefore be said as the best form of educational motivation compared

to other theories like the incentive theory (Brookfield 1992, 12). Those learners with self

directed motivation have at least one project per year in which they identify learning

resources and implement them accordingly (Brookfield 1992, 13).
Grant et al argues that, self directed motivation can be applied by job seekers which

can be used to predict performance in three ways, autonomous motivation, initiative and

controlled motivation (2011 p 241). According to this theory, the job seekers are motivated to

do any type of assignment with some seriousness owing to their responsibilities. Adult

learners in higher education also apply this theory (Grant et al p 241). These are responsible

people who attempts to make their life better through self directed events. People over 30

years that are in these institutions have been found to perform better than those below 30

years (Brookfield 1992 p 14). In the institutions of higher learning which includes

universities and community colleges, most of the courses are inhabited by adult learners. It

has been predicted that in the next few years, the number of adult learners will increase by

about 20% (Nelson 2011 p 55). Self directed motivation is the key driving force towards the

enrolment of these senior learners. They have a specific goal which new need to achieve.

According to Nelson et al, these adult learners have completely different economical,

personal, intellectual and social goals which differentiates them from the other group of
learners (2011 p 55).

In conclusion, the comparison of all these theories in the aspect of learning have a lot

of significance depending on the age bracket. The incentive theory only applies to motivating

those people who have no vision to help them achieve (Beck 2004).  The drive reduction

theory cannot be applied in an education setting. This aims at overworking somebody with

the aim of achieving. The cognitive theory requires the person who applies it to be very sharp

in the implementation, failure to which can lead to negative motivation. In higher learning

institutions, the best motivation which can be applied indiscriminately is the self-driven

motivation (Beck 2004).

The type of learning at these institutions is professional development. These learners

are directed towards implementation of a certain skill in the field. It therefore calls for

sensitization of the importance of being self driven. This brings about responsible citizens

who do not depend on extrinsic motivation to perform. Adult learning should be encouraged

to better the future of the professionals (Nelson et al 2011, p 55).

REFERENCES

Beck, R.C. (2004). Motivation: theories and principles. New Jersey: prentice hall publishers.

Brookfield, S. (1992). Myths and realities in facilitating adult Learning.” San Francisco. Page 12-
CLICK HERE TO ORDER FOR A FULLY RESEARCHED PAPER ON THIS TOPIC AND OTHER RELATED TOPICS FROM A PROFESSIONAL WRITER AT capitalessaywriting.com…………………………….  

AMOTIVATIONAL THEORIES

A MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES

Introduction
Motivation is described as the driving force behind individuals’ achievements. It is the force that gives people the morale to achieve their goals. Motivation is an exceptionally powerful tool in human resource management. Any competent manager needs to implement appropriate motivational techniques to improve the performance of their workforce. Motivation reduces pain and maximizes pleasure at work. Motivated individuals rarely get fatigued; their performance is always highly rated. There are several motivational theories; these include incentive theories, cognitive dissonance theory and drive-reduction theories among others (Beck, 2004).
Incentive theory
Incentive theory states that individuals should be rewarded for their excellent results. This means that a reward, either physical or abstract should be given to a person after the occurrence of an action. This initiative is aimed at encouraging an individual and even put him or her in a position to do better. Studies confirm that instant reward has a greater effect to the recipient. It is believed that the longer the duration the lesser the impact. It is advisable for the administration to reward exemplary performance instantly.
Drive reduction theory
Drive reduction theory is derived from the hypothesis that human beings have specific biological drivers. This theory is firmly based on the concept of feedback back control system. Under this theory, the management can propose something like monetary gifts. These monetary gifts will be given out to individuals who meet certain conditions set out by the management. Monetary gifts are considered as the driving force in this case. Therefore, workers will focus on the money rather than the task ahead thus the management would have reduced the drive.
Cognitive dissonance theory
Cognitive dissonance theory presupposes that human beings possess the motivational drive to lessen dissonance. Individuals achieve this by altering their beliefs, attitudes or actions. Cognitive dissonance happens when a person experiences a certain amount of discomfort as a result of lack of similarity between two cognitions. Organizations can apply this hypothesis by constantly changing their working structures (Beck, 2004).
Application in the work place
I would apply drive reduction theory in the work place. This is because I believe that employees need something to revitalize their performance. Stress is among the leading cases of poor performance among many employees. This means that, apart from putting mechanisms in place to reduce stress among employees and improve time management, employees need to receive some gains after accomplishing their goals. This mighty seem similar to incentive theory but in the real sense, it is quite different from the former in terms of effect. Under drive reduction theory, certain privileges would be given to employees who perform better.
CLICK HERE TO ORDER FOR A FULLY RESEARCHED PAPER ON THIS TOPIC AND OTHER RELATED TOPICS FROM A PROFESSIONAL WRITER AT capitalessaywriting.com…………………………….  
This may in the form of monetary gains, promotion and other valuable allowances that would reduce the drive. The drive in this case are the duties assigned to employees. Employees get motivation when they are assured of a reward at the end of their task. Focus will now be drawn to accomplishing the task and meeting their reward as opposite to the task ahead. This motivational theory is better compared to incentive theory in the sense that, incentives only make a significant impact during initial stages. As the practice continues, the impact diminishes. Employees will no longer be motivated by such actions. Individuals get motivated only if they receive rewards as a surprise. Incentives should not be predictable (Beck, 2004).
Self directed theory

Since early 1970’s, self directed learning has been on the spot in adult education. The

Comparison of adult education in higher learning institutions as compared to the youth is

based on the age of the learners. (Liang et al 2011, p 209-215). Self directed learning is

essential and natural which promotes satisfaction within human beings. The theory of self-

directed learning can therefore be said as the best form of educational motivation compared

to other theories like the incentive theory (Brookfield 1992, 12). Those learners with self

directed motivation have at least one project per year in which they identify learning

resources and implement them accordingly (Brookfield 1992, 13).
Grant et al argues that, self directed motivation can be applied by job seekers which

can be used to predict performance in three ways, autonomous motivation, initiative and

controlled motivation (2011 p 241). According to this theory, the job seekers are motivated to

do any type of assignment with some seriousness owing to their responsibilities. Adult

learners in higher education also apply this theory (Grant et al p 241). These are responsible

people who attempts to make their life better through self directed events. People over 30

years that are in these institutions have been found to perform better than those below 30

years (Brookfield 1992 p 14). In the institutions of higher learning which includes

universities and community colleges, most of the courses are inhabited by adult learners. It

has been predicted that in the next few years, the number of adult learners will increase by

about 20% (Nelson 2011 p 55). Self directed motivation is the key driving force towards the

enrolment of these senior learners. They have a specific goal which new need to achieve.

According to Nelson et al, these adult learners have completely different economical,

personal, intellectual and social goals which differentiates them from the other group of
learners (2011 p 55).

In conclusion, the comparison of all these theories in the aspect of learning have a lot

of significance depending on the age bracket. The incentive theory only applies to motivating

those people who have no vision to help them achieve (Beck 2004).  The drive reduction

theory cannot be applied in an education setting. This aims at overworking somebody with

the aim of achieving. The cognitive theory requires the person who applies it to be very sharp

in the implementation, failure to which can lead to negative motivation. In higher learning

institutions, the best motivation which can be applied indiscriminately is the self-driven

motivation (Beck 2004).

The type of learning at these institutions is professional development. These learners

are directed towards implementation of a certain skill in the field. It therefore calls for

sensitization of the importance of being self driven. This brings about responsible citizens

who do not depend on extrinsic motivation to perform. Adult learning should be encouraged

to better the future of the professionals (Nelson et al 2011, p 55).

REFERENCES

Beck, R.C. (2004). Motivation: theories and principles. New Jersey: prentice hall publishers.

Brookfield, S. (1992). Myths and realities in facilitating adult Learning.” San Francisco. Page 12-
CLICK HERE TO ORDER FOR A FULLY RESEARCHED PAPER ON THIS TOPIC AND OTHER RELATED TOPICS FROM A PROFESSIONAL WRITER AT capitalessaywriting.com…………………………….  

Interested in a PLAGIARISM-FREE paper based on these particular instructions?...with 100% confidentiality?

Order Now