Interested in a PLAGIARISM-FREE paper based on these particular instructions?...with 100% confidentiality?

Order Now

A critical review of chapter 8 on Ideology in Martha Augostinos; Social Cognition

A critical review of chapter 8 on Ideology in Martha Augostinos; Social Cognition

Introduction
Chapter 8 in Martha Augostinos discussion of Social Cognition is one that details many aspects as it regards social cognition and ideology giving illustrations on the significance of various aspects as it regards social cognition and the role that ideology plays in this. The author puts across a wealthy discussion on the influence that ideology has on an individual’s social cognition and hence social welfare. In this regard, the author’s comprehensive introduction to social cognition and further its detailed discussion effectively the distinct traditions that have over the years developed to influence social relationships. The chapter further guides readers through the comprehensible discussion with a critical look at the factors that influence social relationships.
However, this chapter is at some point contradictory in the various issues raised as well as the array of theories as used by the author to describe the aspect of ideology. At the same time, the author successfully uses varying methodologies and applications regarding social cognition and therefore demonstrating how fruitfully the contrasting styles can cross-fertilize. Generally, social cognition relates to both individual and societal understanding on the way various aspect6s of the society co relate and how they can effectively be rationalized to enhance societal wellbeing.
CLICK HERE TO ORDER FOR A FULLY RESEARCHED PAPER ON THIS TOPIC AND OTHER RELATED TOPICS FROM A PROFESSIONAL WRITER AT capitalessaywriting.com…………………………….  
In her discussion, Martha Augostinos is of the opinion that among the crucial aspects in social cognition study includes work on attitudes, social schemas and attributions. According to her, these play a crucial role in enhancing the development of a well rounded society. According to her, these work hand in hand alongside social identity and social representations that bring out an individuals characteristics and hence importance in the society. The author discusses this while pointing out that there exists important linkages between social representations and social identity arguing that one cannot downplay the crucial role that these two aspects play in individual and societal development and therefore the importance of these two aspects across these domains.
Generally, social Cognition is the study of how people make sense out of themselves and others. According to the author, the study of social cognition focuses on how people think about other people and how they think about others and themselves. It is with this understanding therefore that the author illustrates the importance of the way people think about themselves and others in the society. Generally the way people think about other as well as themselves in the society plays a major role in dictating the way the two relate. When individuals see each other as important to the society, this means that they would respect each other.
On the other hand if individual’s would disrespect each other by assuming that they do not play an important role in the society, then chances are that they are unable to peacefully coexist. As a result therefore, it is very important to ensure that all individuals think rightly about each other to enhance respect and peaceful coexistence in the society. The author further stresses that social cognition looks at the higher mental processes that are engaged while in social situations or in dealing with social information (perception, memory, attention, reasoning, and problem solving).
In this regard, taking the best of the North American cognitivist and individualist social psychology, the author integrates this with the broader framework of European research on identity and ideology. This gives the reader an insight in to the aspects surrounding the European community as the various ways that could be used to address this. She also assesses the more recent discursive and postmodern challenges to orthodox social cognition models. This accessible and coherent overview of the social aspects of cognition is essential reading for all individuals who could be interested in pursuing any psychology related career and social psychology in general. However, according to the author, previous research indicates that males, compared with females, evaluate their relationships less favorably after exposure to physically attractive members of the other sex.

Further, the author stresses that an evolutionary model predicts a converse effect after exposure to opposite-sex individuals high in dominance, which should lead females to evaluate their current relationships less favorably than males. Women and men rated their current relationships after being exposed to opposite-sex targets varying in both dominance and physical attractiveness. Consistent with earlier research, males exposed to physically attractive, as compared with average, targets rated their current relationships less favorably.

According to the author, males’ relationship evaluations were not directly influenced by the targets’ dominance, although the effect of physical attractiveness was significant only for men exposed to women low in dominance. However; females’ evaluations of their relationships were unaffected by exposure to physically attractive males but were lower after exposure to targets high in dominance. These data support predictions derived from an evolutionary model and suggest that such models can be used to generate testable hypotheses about ongoing social cognition.

At the same time, the author stresses that social living provides opportunities for cooperative interdependence and concomitant opportunities to obtain help from others in times of need. Nevertheless, people frequently refuse help from others, even when it would be beneficial. Decisions to accept or reject aid offers may provide a window into the adaptive trade-offs recipients make between costs and benefits in different key domains of social life. Following from evolutionary and ecological perspectives, we consider how help-recipient decision making might reflect qualitatively different threats to goal attainment within six fundamental domains of social life (coalition formation, status, self-protection, mate acquisition, mate retention, and familial care). Accepting help from another person is likely to involve very different threats and opportunities depending on which domains are currently active (Augoustinos, 1991). This approach can generate a variety of novel empirical predictions and suggest new implications for the delivery of aid.

The author further explains that following from evolutionary psychology, men and women differ in the characteristics they value in a partner. Men value physical attractiveness in women because a woman’s physical attractiveness is related to her fertility, whereas women value dominance in men since dominance is related to a man’s ability to provide resources. As jealousy is evoked by characteristics of the rival that are believed to be important to the other sex, it was predicted that jealousy in males would be influenced by the rival’s dominance, whereas jealousy in females would be influenced by the rival’s physical attractiveness.
According to the author, there is a recent trend toward the development of a comprehensive model of relational cognition, examining how information about interpersonal experiences is perceived, interpreted, stored and recalled. I present illustrative examples from recent adult attachment research, and argue that a better understanding of cognition about interpersonal dynamics could help to integrate the various domains of relationships research. Niche construction is an endogenous causal process in evolution, reciprocal to the causal process of natural selection (Augoustinos, 1991). It works by adding ecological inheritance, comprising the inheritance of natural selection pressures previously modified by niche construction, to genetic inheritance in evolution.

However, according to the author, human niche construction modifies selection pressures in environments in ways that affect both human evolution, and the evolution of other species. Human ecological inheritance is exceptionally potent because it includes the social transmission and inheritance of cultural knowledge, and material culture. Human genetic inheritance in combination with human cultural inheritance thus provides a basis for gene–culture co evolution, and multivariate dynamics in cultural evolution. According to Augoustinos  (1991) niche construction theory potentially integrates the biological and social aspects of the human sciences.
In conclusion, the author puts across that social cognition is an area of social psychology that has received interest from psychologists over the past two decades as a result of the crucial role that it plays in understanding an individual and the society at large. In this case, the area has harnessed basic concepts from cognitive psychology and developed and refined them to explain human thinking, feeling, and acting in a social context. Moreover, social cognition has integrated emotional influences and unconscious processes to reach a more complete understanding of social psychological phenomena.

References

Augoustinos, M.  (1991). Social representations and social cognition: a convergence of different traditions. Adelaide: University of Adelaide press, Dept. of Psychology.
CLICK HERE TO ORDER FOR A FULLY RESEARCHED PAPER ON THIS TOPIC AND OTHER RELATED TOPICS FROM A PROFESSIONAL WRITER AT capitalessaywriting.com…………………………….  

A critical review of chapter 8 on Ideology in Martha Augostinos; Social Cognition

A critical review of chapter 8 on Ideology in Martha Augostinos; Social Cognition

Introduction
Chapter 8 in Martha Augostinos discussion of Social Cognition is one that details many aspects as it regards social cognition and ideology giving illustrations on the significance of various aspects as it regards social cognition and the role that ideology plays in this. The author puts across a wealthy discussion on the influence that ideology has on an individual’s social cognition and hence social welfare. In this regard, the author’s comprehensive introduction to social cognition and further its detailed discussion effectively the distinct traditions that have over the years developed to influence social relationships. The chapter further guides readers through the comprehensible discussion with a critical look at the factors that influence social relationships.
However, this chapter is at some point contradictory in the various issues raised as well as the array of theories as used by the author to describe the aspect of ideology. At the same time, the author successfully uses varying methodologies and applications regarding social cognition and therefore demonstrating how fruitfully the contrasting styles can cross-fertilize. Generally, social cognition relates to both individual and societal understanding on the way various aspect6s of the society co relate and how they can effectively be rationalized to enhance societal wellbeing.
CLICK HERE TO ORDER FOR A FULLY RESEARCHED PAPER ON THIS TOPIC AND OTHER RELATED TOPICS FROM A PROFESSIONAL WRITER AT capitalessaywriting.com…………………………….  
In her discussion, Martha Augostinos is of the opinion that among the crucial aspects in social cognition study includes work on attitudes, social schemas and attributions. According to her, these play a crucial role in enhancing the development of a well rounded society. According to her, these work hand in hand alongside social identity and social representations that bring out an individuals characteristics and hence importance in the society. The author discusses this while pointing out that there exists important linkages between social representations and social identity arguing that one cannot downplay the crucial role that these two aspects play in individual and societal development and therefore the importance of these two aspects across these domains.
Generally, social Cognition is the study of how people make sense out of themselves and others. According to the author, the study of social cognition focuses on how people think about other people and how they think about others and themselves. It is with this understanding therefore that the author illustrates the importance of the way people think about themselves and others in the society. Generally the way people think about other as well as themselves in the society plays a major role in dictating the way the two relate. When individuals see each other as important to the society, this means that they would respect each other.
On the other hand if individual’s would disrespect each other by assuming that they do not play an important role in the society, then chances are that they are unable to peacefully coexist. As a result therefore, it is very important to ensure that all individuals think rightly about each other to enhance respect and peaceful coexistence in the society. The author further stresses that social cognition looks at the higher mental processes that are engaged while in social situations or in dealing with social information (perception, memory, attention, reasoning, and problem solving).
In this regard, taking the best of the North American cognitivist and individualist social psychology, the author integrates this with the broader framework of European research on identity and ideology. This gives the reader an insight in to the aspects surrounding the European community as the various ways that could be used to address this. She also assesses the more recent discursive and postmodern challenges to orthodox social cognition models. This accessible and coherent overview of the social aspects of cognition is essential reading for all individuals who could be interested in pursuing any psychology related career and social psychology in general. However, according to the author, previous research indicates that males, compared with females, evaluate their relationships less favorably after exposure to physically attractive members of the other sex.

Further, the author stresses that an evolutionary model predicts a converse effect after exposure to opposite-sex individuals high in dominance, which should lead females to evaluate their current relationships less favorably than males. Women and men rated their current relationships after being exposed to opposite-sex targets varying in both dominance and physical attractiveness. Consistent with earlier research, males exposed to physically attractive, as compared with average, targets rated their current relationships less favorably.

According to the author, males’ relationship evaluations were not directly influenced by the targets’ dominance, although the effect of physical attractiveness was significant only for men exposed to women low in dominance. However; females’ evaluations of their relationships were unaffected by exposure to physically attractive males but were lower after exposure to targets high in dominance. These data support predictions derived from an evolutionary model and suggest that such models can be used to generate testable hypotheses about ongoing social cognition.

At the same time, the author stresses that social living provides opportunities for cooperative interdependence and concomitant opportunities to obtain help from others in times of need. Nevertheless, people frequently refuse help from others, even when it would be beneficial. Decisions to accept or reject aid offers may provide a window into the adaptive trade-offs recipients make between costs and benefits in different key domains of social life. Following from evolutionary and ecological perspectives, we consider how help-recipient decision making might reflect qualitatively different threats to goal attainment within six fundamental domains of social life (coalition formation, status, self-protection, mate acquisition, mate retention, and familial care). Accepting help from another person is likely to involve very different threats and opportunities depending on which domains are currently active (Augoustinos, 1991). This approach can generate a variety of novel empirical predictions and suggest new implications for the delivery of aid.

The author further explains that following from evolutionary psychology, men and women differ in the characteristics they value in a partner. Men value physical attractiveness in women because a woman’s physical attractiveness is related to her fertility, whereas women value dominance in men since dominance is related to a man’s ability to provide resources. As jealousy is evoked by characteristics of the rival that are believed to be important to the other sex, it was predicted that jealousy in males would be influenced by the rival’s dominance, whereas jealousy in females would be influenced by the rival’s physical attractiveness.
According to the author, there is a recent trend toward the development of a comprehensive model of relational cognition, examining how information about interpersonal experiences is perceived, interpreted, stored and recalled. I present illustrative examples from recent adult attachment research, and argue that a better understanding of cognition about interpersonal dynamics could help to integrate the various domains of relationships research. Niche construction is an endogenous causal process in evolution, reciprocal to the causal process of natural selection (Augoustinos, 1991). It works by adding ecological inheritance, comprising the inheritance of natural selection pressures previously modified by niche construction, to genetic inheritance in evolution.

However, according to the author, human niche construction modifies selection pressures in environments in ways that affect both human evolution, and the evolution of other species. Human ecological inheritance is exceptionally potent because it includes the social transmission and inheritance of cultural knowledge, and material culture. Human genetic inheritance in combination with human cultural inheritance thus provides a basis for gene–culture co evolution, and multivariate dynamics in cultural evolution. According to Augoustinos  (1991) niche construction theory potentially integrates the biological and social aspects of the human sciences.
In conclusion, the author puts across that social cognition is an area of social psychology that has received interest from psychologists over the past two decades as a result of the crucial role that it plays in understanding an individual and the society at large. In this case, the area has harnessed basic concepts from cognitive psychology and developed and refined them to explain human thinking, feeling, and acting in a social context. Moreover, social cognition has integrated emotional influences and unconscious processes to reach a more complete understanding of social psychological phenomena.

References

Augoustinos, M.  (1991). Social representations and social cognition: a convergence of different traditions. Adelaide: University of Adelaide press, Dept. of Psychology.
CLICK HERE TO ORDER FOR A FULLY RESEARCHED PAPER ON THIS TOPIC AND OTHER RELATED TOPICS FROM A PROFESSIONAL WRITER AT capitalessaywriting.com…………………………….  

Interested in a PLAGIARISM-FREE paper based on these particular instructions?...with 100% confidentiality?

Order Now