Assignment 4: Dataflow Fall Semester 2017 Corresponding Lecture: Lesson 5 (Dataflow Analysis) Objective This assignment will familiarize you with writing static program analyses using LLVM. LLVM is a collection of compiler and analysis toolchain utilities widely used in the software analysis community. You will use LLVM to implement two intra-procedural dataflow analyses, one forward (reaching definitions analysis) and one backward (liveness analysis). Resources ● LLVM Webpage: http://llvm.org ● Getting Started with LLVM: http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/GettingStarted.html http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/GettingStarted.html#anexample- using-the-llvm-tool-chain ● LLVM Documentation: http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/index.html http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/ProgrammersManual.html http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/LangRef.html http://llvm.org/doxygen/index.html ● C++ Pointers Tutorial: http://www.cplusplus.com/doc/tutorial/pointers/ Setup 1. Download and extract the assignment code found on T-Square in the file dataflow.zip . 2. Navigate to dataflow/build and run the following commands: cmake .. make clean make (You should now see libDataflowPass.so under dataflow/build/Dataflow .) 3. Go to the dataflow/example directory and compile the programs we will analyze with the following commands: clang -emit-llvm ArrayDemo.c -c -o ArrayDemo.bc clang -emit-llvm Greatest.c -c -o Greatest.bc 4. Run the Dataflow pass using the commands below to ensure everything works as expected for the test program ArrayDemo.c . These commands print the results of reaching definition analysis and liveness analysis (they are empty sets because the analyses are only stubs) as the dataflow facts for each instruction. opt -load ../build/Dataflow/libDataflowPass.so -ReachDef /dev/null opt -load ../build/Dataflow/libDataflowPass.so -Liveness /dev/null Assignment Instructions Complete the doAnalysis method in ReachDefAnalysis.cpp and LivenessAnalysis.cpp (located in dataflow/Dataflow/ ) to implement the two analyses. Do not write your analysis code outside of these files, as these files are the only ones you will submit. You may use the C++ Standard Template Library (STL) with LLVM. Your code will need to iterate over the program points in the input function and store the computed dataflow facts in DataflowAnalysis::inMap and DataflowAnalysis::outMap . Both analyses inherit from the base class DataflowAnalysis , which you can find in the header file DataflowAnalysis.h located in the directory dataflow/Dataflow/ . Besides including useful classes such as SetVector and ValueMap , DataflowAnalysis.h also defines usefl utility functions such as getPredecessors , getSuccessors , and isDef . The file Printer.cpp (also in the same directory) demonstrates the API by printing the definitions, uses, predecessors, and successors of each instruction. You can execute it using the command: opt -load ../build/Dataflow/libDataflowPass.so -Printer /dev/null After completing the two doAnalysis methods, re-build the analyses using the commands from setup Step 2, and then rerun the analyses using the commands from setup Step 4 to obtain the output of your analyses on the ArrayDemo.c program. If your implementation is correct, your output will match the example output in ArrayDemo_ReachDef and ArrayDemo_Liveness (both found in dataflow/example/ ). The order of elements in the in and out sets does not matter, but the number of elements and the values should match exactly. We have also included another program, Greatest.c , and it’s expected outputs for testing your implementation. You can use commands similar to those the final set-up instruction step to analyze this program. Assignment Documentation These entries in the programmer’s manual are relevant to the analyses you will write: ● Using isa to check whether a pointer points to an instance of a particular type. http://llvm.org/docs/ProgrammersManual.html#the-isa-cast-and-dyn-c ast-templates ● Enumerating basic blocks and instructions in a function: http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/ProgrammersManual.html#basic-i nspection-and-traversal-routines http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/ProgrammersManual.html# iterating-over-predecessors-successors-of-blocks ● Important classes: http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/ProgrammersManual.html#thevalue- class http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/ProgrammersManual.html#theuser- class http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/ProgrammersManual.html#theinstruction- class http://llvm.org/docs/doxygen/html/classllvm_1_1ValueMap.html http://llvm.org/docs/doxygen/html/classllvm_1_1SetVector.html Additional tips ● Instead of source code, LLVM uses its own intermediate representation (bitcode files) compiled from source files. These intermediate representations are in the static single assignment (SSA) form. Since each variable is only defined once, LLVM represents each variable directly using the instruction defining it. In fact, the Instruction class is a subtype of the Value class. You can check whether an instruction defines a variable by checking getType()->isVoidTy() . ● ValueMap has a similar interface to that of std::map ( http://www.cplusplus.com/ reference/map/map/ ). For example, you can access or insert an element using the [] operator: ValueMap vm; Instruction* I = /*…*/; vm[I] = 5; // inserts to the map printf(“%d”, vm[I]); // accesses vm[I] You will not need to insert any new elements into DataflowAnalysis::inMap or DataflowAnalysis::outMap because the sets for holding dataflow facts already exist (see DataflowAnalysis.cpp ). ● SetVector is likewise similar to std::vector ( http://www.cplusplus.com/ reference/vector/vector/ ) except that it does not permit inserting duplicate elements. Note that the == operator returns false for two SetVector objects containing the same elements in different orders. Note also that functions in from the STL ( http://www.cplusplus.com/reference/algorithm/ ) work with SetVector . For example: SetVector sv; for( int i = 0; i < 5; i++ ) sv.insert(i); sv.insert(0); // has no effect printf("%u", (int)sv.size()); // prints 5 if (std::all_of(sv.begin(), sv.end(), isPositive)) // all_of is from printf(“All numbers in sv are positive!”); assuming isPositive is defined elsewhere as: bool isPositive(int i) {return i > 0;} Items to Submit 1. (50 points) LivenessAnalysis.cpp 2. (50 points) ReachDefAnalysis.cpp Submit the files separately, not in an archive. Grading Criteria ● We will generally award credit using the following formula. If the correct output set for Analysis X contains n entries and your output set contains a of those correct entries and b spurious entries, then you will receive max(0, ( a – b )/ n ) of the points for Analysis X (this is floating-point division, not integer division, of course). ● You will also receive a deduction if your code doesn’t terminate within two minutes. (If your code for an analysis doesn’t terminate at all, you will receive no credit for that analysis.) ● While efficiency is important, it is entirely secondary to correctness. Though you may lose some points for an inefficient yet correct algorithm, you will not gain points for an efficient yet incorrect algorithm.

Assignment 4: Dataflow
Fall Semester 2017

Corresponding Lecture: Lesson 5 (Dataflow Analysis)
Objective
This assignment will familiarize you with writing static program analyses using LLVM. LLVM
is a collection of compiler and analysis toolchain utilities widely used in the software analysis
community. You will use LLVM to implement two intra-procedural dataflow analyses, one
forward (reaching definitions analysis) and one backward (liveness analysis).
Resources
● LLVM Webpage:
http://llvm.org
● Getting Started with LLVM:
http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/GettingStarted.html
http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/GettingStarted.html#anexample-
using-the-llvm-tool-chain
● LLVM Documentation:
http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/index.html
http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/ProgrammersManual.html
http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/LangRef.html
http://llvm.org/doxygen/index.html
● C++ Pointers Tutorial:
http://www.cplusplus.com/doc/tutorial/pointers/
Setup
1. Download and extract the assignment code found on T-Square in the file dataflow.zip .
2. Navigate to dataflow/build and run the following commands:
cmake ..
make clean
make
(You should now see libDataflowPass.so under dataflow/build/Dataflow .)
3. Go to the dataflow/example directory and compile the programs we will analyze with
the following commands:
clang -emit-llvm ArrayDemo.c -c -o ArrayDemo.bc
clang -emit-llvm Greatest.c -c -o Greatest.bc
4. Run the Dataflow pass using the commands below to ensure everything works as
expected for the test program ArrayDemo.c . These commands print the results of
reaching definition analysis and liveness analysis (they are empty sets because the
analyses are only stubs) as the dataflow facts for each instruction.
opt -load ../build/Dataflow/libDataflowPass.so -ReachDef < ArrayDemo.bc > /dev/null
opt -load ../build/Dataflow/libDataflowPass.so -Liveness < ArrayDemo.bc > /dev/null
Assignment Instructions
Complete the doAnalysis method in ReachDefAnalysis.cpp and LivenessAnalysis.cpp
(located in dataflow/Dataflow/ ) to implement the two analyses. Do not write your analysis
code outside of these files, as these files are the only ones you will submit.
You may use the C++ Standard Template Library (STL) with LLVM.
Your code will need to iterate over the program points in the input function and store the
computed dataflow facts in DataflowAnalysis::inMap and DataflowAnalysis::outMap . Both
analyses inherit from the base class DataflowAnalysis , which you can find in the header file
DataflowAnalysis.h located in the directory dataflow/Dataflow/ . Besides including useful
classes such as SetVector and ValueMap , DataflowAnalysis.h also defines usefl utility
functions such as getPredecessors , getSuccessors , and isDef .
The file Printer.cpp (also in the same directory) demonstrates the API by printing the
definitions, uses, predecessors, and successors of each instruction. You can execute it using the
command:
opt -load ../build/Dataflow/libDataflowPass.so -Printer < ArrayDemo.bc > /dev/null
After completing the two doAnalysis methods, re-build the analyses using the commands from
setup Step 2, and then rerun the analyses using the commands from setup Step 4 to obtain the
output of your analyses on the ArrayDemo.c program. If your implementation is correct, your
output will match the example output in ArrayDemo_ReachDef and ArrayDemo_Liveness (both
found in dataflow/example/ ). The order of elements in the in and out sets does not matter, but
the number of elements and the values should match exactly.
We have also included another program, Greatest.c , and it’s expected outputs for testing your
implementation. You can use commands similar to those the final set-up instruction step to
analyze this program.
Assignment Documentation
These entries in the programmer’s manual are relevant to the analyses you will write:
● Using isa<> to check whether a pointer points to an instance of a particular type.
http://llvm.org/docs/ProgrammersManual.html#the-isa-cast-and-dyn-c
ast-templates
● Enumerating basic blocks and instructions in a function:
http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/ProgrammersManual.html#basic-i
nspection-and-traversal-routines
http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/ProgrammersManual.html#
iterating-over-predecessors-successors-of-blocks
● Important classes:
http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/ProgrammersManual.html#thevalue-
class
http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/ProgrammersManual.html#theuser-
class
http://releases.llvm.org/3.6.2/docs/ProgrammersManual.html#theinstruction-
class
http://llvm.org/docs/doxygen/html/classllvm_1_1ValueMap.html
http://llvm.org/docs/doxygen/html/classllvm_1_1SetVector.html
Additional tips
● Instead of source code, LLVM uses its own intermediate representation (bitcode files)
compiled from source files. These intermediate representations are in the static single
assignment (SSA) form. Since each variable is only defined once, LLVM represents
each variable directly using the instruction defining it. In fact, the Instruction class is
a subtype of the Value class. You can check whether an instruction defines a variable by
checking getType()->isVoidTy() .
● ValueMap has a similar interface to that of std::map ( http://www.cplusplus.com/
reference/map/map/ ). For example, you can access or insert an element using the []
operator:
ValueMap<Instruction*, int> vm;
Instruction* I = /*…*/;
vm[I] = 5; // inserts <I, 5> to the map
printf(“%d”, vm[I]); // accesses vm[I]
You will not need to insert any new elements into DataflowAnalysis::inMap or
DataflowAnalysis::outMap because the sets for holding dataflow facts already exist
(see DataflowAnalysis.cpp ).
● SetVector is likewise similar to std::vector ( http://www.cplusplus.com/
reference/vector/vector/ ) except that it does not permit inserting duplicate
elements. Note that the == operator returns false for two SetVector objects containing
the same elements in different orders. Note also that functions in <algorithm> from the
STL ( http://www.cplusplus.com/reference/algorithm/ ) work with SetVector . For
example:
SetVector<int> sv;
for( int i = 0; i < 5; i++ )
sv.insert(i);
sv.insert(0); // has no effect
printf(“%u”, (int)sv.size()); // prints 5
if (std::all_of(sv.begin(), sv.end(), isPositive))
// all_of is from <algorithm>
printf(“All numbers in sv are positive!”);
assuming isPositive is defined elsewhere as:
bool isPositive(int i) {return i > 0;}
Items to Submit
1. (50 points) LivenessAnalysis.cpp
2. (50 points) ReachDefAnalysis.cpp
Submit the files separately, not in an archive.
Grading Criteria
● We will generally award credit using the following formula. If the correct output set for
Analysis X contains n entries and your output set contains a of those correct entries and
b spurious entries, then you will receive max(0, ( a – b )/ n ) of the points for Analysis X
(this is floating-point division, not integer division, of course).
● You will also receive a deduction if your code doesn’t terminate within two minutes. (If
your code for an analysis doesn’t terminate at all, you will receive no credit for that
analysis.)
● While efficiency is important, it is entirely secondary to correctness. Though you may
lose some points for an inefficient yet correct algorithm, you will not gain points for an
efficient yet incorrect algorithm.

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When looking at the life of a project plan, it is useful to graph and outline the cost variance (CV), and schedule variance (SV). Determining progress, or lack of progress, provides essential information to assess a given project. Complete exercise 2 in chapter 13 of the textbook. Given the data provided, in an excel spreadsheet, PowerPoint, or other appropriate method of delivery, determine the following: Schedule Variance (SV) Cost Variance (CV) Schedule Performance Index (SPI) Cost Performance Index (CPI) In 250-300 words, answer the questions provided with the exercise. Reflect on the assessment of this project assessment. Should the project continue to improve?

When looking at the life of a project plan, it is useful to graph and outline the cost variance (CV), and schedule variance (SV). Determining progress, or lack of progress, provides essential information to assess a given project.

Complete exercise 2 in chapter 13 of the textbook. Given the data provided, in an excel spreadsheet, PowerPoint, or other appropriate method of delivery, determine the following:

  1. Schedule Variance (SV)
  2. Cost Variance (CV)
  3. Schedule Performance Index (SPI)
  4. Cost Performance Index (CPI)

In 250-300 words, answer the questions provided with the exercise. Reflect on the assessment of this project assessment. Should the project continue to improve?

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C10; Introduction to Computers Assignment 8; Business Consulting Remember Bill? He was the gentleman that you helped to start up his business in week 4. Well his business is doing well, but he has come to you with some questions and concerns. You discuss each of these with Bill and promise to send him a written report with your suggestions and recommendations. Submit your written response to Bill’s questions and concerns below. 1. Bill has set up a spreadsheet in Excel that will help him keep track of expenses. So far, he has this: Tell Bill how to do the following tasks: • What formula or function does he put in Column F that will show the total expenses for each day? • What formula or function does he put in columns B through F in Row 13 that will give him the total expenses for the week in each category? • Bill wants the entry in Column G to remind him of expenses that require receipts for the accountant. Tell Bill what to put in Column G to do this: a. Print the word “Yes” in any row where the total daily expenses are greater than or equal to $100.00. b. If the daily expenses total is less than $100.00, leave the Column G entry for that row blank. 2. Bill’s business is already expanding. He thinks that in a few weeks, he will need to hire one or two employees to help him. He knows that each new employee will need their own computer. He is also making the necessary changes so that the new employees will be working in a spare room in Bill’s house. Explain to Bill what networking options he has. Go through each type or configuration of network possible for him, making sure that you explain the pros and cons of each configuration. Finish with your suggestion for the network that he should set up and explain what new hardware will be required to do this. 3. With the possibility of three business computers in his home, and all of his business records possibly vulnerable, this would be a good time to advise Bill on how to set up a routine plan to protect and defend his new network. Provide a list of the five most important concerns for safety and security of the network and the computers in the network. For each concern, specify the action to be taken, and if applicable, what software you recommend be added to the system. Justify each of your recommendations. Your proposal will be evaluated using the rubric below. Make sure you read the rubric and have a clear idea of what is expected. If there are any additional questions that you would have asked Bill be sure to note them as you explain to Bill what networking options he has so that you can explain what additional information could change your suggestion if any.   Rubric

C10; Introduction to Computers

Assignment 8; Business Consulting

Remember Bill? He was the gentleman that you helped to start up his business in week 4. Well his business is doing well, but he has come to you with some questions and concerns. You discuss each of these with Bill and promise to send him a written report with your suggestions and recommendations. Submit your written response to Bill’s questions and concerns below.

  1. Bill has set up a spreadsheet in Excel that will help him keep track of expenses. So far, he has this:

Tell Bill how to do the following tasks:

  • What formula or function does he put in Column F that will show the total expenses for each day?
  • What formula or function does he put in columns B through F in Row 13 that will give him the total expenses for the week in each category?
  • Bill wants the entry in Column G to remind him of expenses that require receipts for the accountant. Tell Bill what to put in Column G to do this:
    1. Print the word “Yes” in any row where the total daily expenses are greater than or equal to $100.00.
    2. If the daily expenses total is less than $100.00, leave the Column G entry for that row blank.
  1. Bill’s business is already expanding. He thinks that in a few weeks, he will need to hire one or two employees to help him. He knows that each new employee will need their own computer. He is also making the necessary changes so that the new employees will be working in a spare room in Bill’s house. Explain to Bill what networking options he has. Go through each type or configuration of network possible for him, making sure that you explain the pros and cons of each configuration. Finish with your suggestion for the network that he should set up and explain what new hardware will be required to do this.
  2. With the possibility of three business computers in his home, and all of his business records possibly vulnerable, this would be a good time to advise Bill on how to set up a routine plan to protect and defend his new network. Provide a list of the five most important concerns for safety and security of the network and the computers in the network. For each concern, specify the action to be taken, and if applicable, what software you recommend be added to the system. Justify each of your recommendations.

 

Your proposal will be evaluated using the rubric below. Make sure you read the rubric and have a clear idea of what is expected. If there are any additional questions that you would have asked Bill be sure to note them as you explain to Bill what networking options he has so that you can explain what additional information could change your suggestion if any.

 

 

Rubric

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It is desired to produce the vapor of a volatile liquid at a steady rate by boiling it in a small spherical vessel, as pictured to the right. The boiling vessel consists of a spherical shell of inside radius Ri = 5 cm and outside radius Ro= 10 cm, with a small side-port for feeding in the liquid, and a small vent at the top for the vapor to leave. The vessel wall produces a uniform volumetric generation of heat, S (by means of electrical heating), and its outside surface at Ro is completely insulated so that all the heat generated goes toward vaporizing the liquid.a. It is desired to produce vapor at the rate of 1.50 mol/min, and the latent heat of its vaporization is 3,500 cal/mole. The boiling point is 180°C. Evaluate the required strength of the volumetric heat source S (cal/cm3·s). (Neglect any sensible heat effects.)b. The thermal conductivity of the material of the vessel is k = 0.012 cal/s·cm·K. Derive and plot the radial temperature profile T(r) in the layer, and in particular, determine the temperature at the outside surface, Ro.

It is desired to produce the vapor of a volatile liquid at a steady rate by boiling it in a small spherical vessel, as pictured to the right. The boiling vessel consists of a spherical shell of inside radius Ri = 5 cm and outside radius Ro= 10 cm, with a small side-port for feeding in the liquid, and a small vent at the top for the vapor to leave. The vessel wall produces a uniform volumetric generation of heat, S (by means of electrical heating), and its outside surface at Ro is completely insulated so that all the heat generated goes toward vaporizing the liquid.a. It is desired to produce vapor at the rate of 1.50 mol/min, and the latent heat of its vaporization is 3,500 cal/mole. The boiling point is 180°C. Evaluate the required strength of the volumetric heat source S (cal/cm3·s). (Neglect any sensible heat effects.)b. The thermal conductivity of the material of the vessel is k = 0.012 cal/s·cm·K. Derive and plot the radial temperature profile T(r) in the layer, and in particular, determine the temperature at the outside surface, Ro.

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Project 1: Chase Manhattan Bank The workload in many areas of bank operations has the characteristic of being unevenly distributed throughout the day. For example, at Chase Manhattan Bank in New York, the number of domestic money transfer requests received from customers, if plotted against the time of day, would appear according to the workload described in Figure 1 below. For efficient use of resources, the personnel available should therefore vary correspondingly. Figure 1: A typical workload curve that describes the corresponding personnel requirements at different hours of the day. A variable capacity can be achieved effectively by employing part-time personnel in conjunction with full-time personnel. Because part-timers are not entitled to all the fringe benefits, they are often more economical than full-time employees. Other considerations such as consistency and quality control however may limit the extent to which part-time people can be hired in a given department. The problem is to find an optimum workforce schedule that will meet personnel requirements at any given time and also be economical. Some of the factors affecting personnel assignment for the Chase Manhattan Bank that you are modeling are as follows: 1. Corporate policy mandates that part-time personnel hours are limited to a maximum of 40% of the day’s total requirements. 2. Full-time employees start at 9:00 A.M. and work for 8 hours with one hour for lunch per day. Thus a full-timer’s productive time is 35 hours per week. They are not paid during their lunch break. 3. Part-timers work for at least 4 hours per day but no more than 6 hours and are not allowed a lunch break. A part-timer may start his/her shift anytime between 9:00 A.M. and 3:00 P.M. 4. Fifty percent of the full-timers go to lunch between 11 A.M. and noon and the remaining 50% go between noon and 1 P.M. 5. The bank operates from 9 A.M. to 7 P.M. Any work left over at 7 P.M. is considered holdover for the next day. 6. A full-time employee is allowed to work up to 2 hours of overtime per day, but the total overtime hours worked may not exceed more than 5 hours per week per employee. Overtime is worked between the hours of 5:00 P.M. and 7:00 P.M. The employee is paid at the normal rate of $10.85 for overtime hours (not at time and a half). Fringe benefits are not applied to overtime hours. When the fringe benefits are applied to the employee’s 35 hour work week, the average cost per full-time personnel hour is $12.40. 7. Part-time personnel are paid $8.80 per hour. 8. The personnel hours required, by hour of the day, are given in Table 1 below. The bank’s goal is to achieve the minimum possible personnel cost subject to meeting or exceeding the hourly workforce requirements as well as the constraints on the workers listed. Time Period Number of Personnel Required 9-10 A.M. 14 10-11 A.M. 25 11-12 26 12-1 P.M. 38 1-2 55 2-3 60 3-4 51 4-5 29 5-6 14 6-7 9 Table 1: Workforce Requirements 1) What is the minimum schedule for the task? The answer will consist of the total cost to the bank and the number of each type of employee needed and the start times for the employees. 2) What are the limitations of the model used to answer question 1? The answer should include the characteristics that formed the constraints. The answer should also include why this will not always work. Provide the uncertainties that would make this model, at times, not function well. 3) Would changing the 40% part-time to a larger percent reduce the cost? Do not just give “yes” or “no.” Run the model in the modified state and prove the “yes” or “no.

Project 1: Chase Manhattan Bank

The workload in many areas of bank operations has the characteristic of being unevenly distributed throughout the day. For example, at Chase Manhattan Bank in New York, the number of domestic money transfer requests received from customers, if plotted against the time of day, would appear according to the workload described in Figure 1 below. For efficient use of resources, the personnel available should therefore vary correspondingly.

Figure 1: A typical workload curve that describes the
corresponding personnel requirements at different hours of the day.

A variable capacity can be achieved effectively by employing part-time personnel in conjunction with full-time personnel. Because part-timers are not entitled to all the fringe benefits, they are often more economical than full-time employees. Other considerations such as consistency and quality control however may limit the extent to which part-time people can be hired in a given department. The problem is to find an optimum workforce schedule that will meet personnel requirements at any given time and also be economical.

Some of the factors affecting personnel assignment for the Chase Manhattan Bank that you are modeling are as follows:

1. Corporate policy mandates that part-time personnel hours are limited to a maximum of 40% of the day’s total requirements.
2. Full-time employees start at 9:00 A.M. and work for 8 hours with one hour for lunch per day. Thus a full-timer’s productive time is 35 hours per week. They are not paid during their lunch break.
3. Part-timers work for at least 4 hours per day but no more than 6 hours and are not allowed a lunch break. A part-timer may start his/her shift anytime between 9:00 A.M. and 3:00 P.M.
4. Fifty percent of the full-timers go to lunch between 11 A.M. and noon and the remaining 50% go between noon and 1 P.M.
5. The bank operates from 9 A.M. to 7 P.M. Any work left over at 7 P.M. is considered holdover for the next day.
6. A full-time employee is allowed to work up to 2 hours of overtime per day, but the total overtime hours worked may not exceed more than 5 hours per week per employee. Overtime is worked between the hours of 5:00 P.M. and 7:00 P.M. The employee is paid at the normal rate of $10.85 for overtime hours (not at time and a half). Fringe benefits are not applied to overtime hours. When the fringe benefits are applied to the employee’s 35 hour work week, the average cost per full-time personnel hour is $12.40.
7. Part-time personnel are paid $8.80 per hour.
8. The personnel hours required, by hour of the day, are given in Table 1 below.

The bank’s goal is to achieve the minimum possible personnel cost subject to meeting or exceeding the hourly workforce requirements as well as the constraints on the workers listed.


Time Period Number of Personnel Required
9-10 A.M. 14
10-11 A.M. 25
11-12 26
12-1 P.M. 38
1-2 55
2-3 60
3-4 51
4-5 29
5-6 14
6-7 9
Table 1: Workforce Requirements



1) What is the minimum schedule for the task? The answer will consist of the total cost to the bank and the number of each type of employee needed and the start times for the employees.
2) What are the limitations of the model used to answer question 1? The answer should include the characteristics that formed the constraints. The answer should also include why this will not always work. Provide the uncertainties that would make this model, at times, not function well.
3) Would changing the 40% part-time to a larger percent reduce the cost? Do not just give “yes” or “no.” Run the model in the modified state and prove the “yes” or “no.

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Variance Analysis” Please respond to the following: •Recommend at least two strategies a budget analyst can apply to ensure that the budget is performing according to the established performance indicators. Justify your response. •From the e-Activity on “Variance Analysis” propose at least two actions a budget analyst can take to avoid assumptions in budget items to avoid overlooking favorable or adverse line items in the budget. Provide examples to justify your response. Multiyear Plans” Please respond to the following: •Propose at least two strategies to avoid assumptions in a multiyear plan. Justify your response. Analyses” Please respond to the following: •Recommend at least two best practices for analyzing multiyear financial statements. Justify your response.

Variance Analysis" Please respond to the following:

•Recommend at least two strategies a budget analyst can apply to ensure that the budget is performing according to the established performance indicators. Justify your response.
•From the e-Activity on “Variance Analysis” propose at least two actions a budget analyst can take to avoid assumptions in budget items to avoid overlooking favorable or adverse line items in the budget. Provide examples to justify your response.
Multiyear Plans" Please respond to the following:
•Propose at least two strategies to avoid assumptions in a multiyear plan. Justify your response.
Analyses" Please respond to the following:
•Recommend at least two best practices for analyzing multiyear financial statements. Justify your response.

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INTRODUCTION: Social Responsibility, Stakeholders, and Economics Jennings (2012) revisits Friedman’s famous words, “What does it mean to say that “BUSINESS ” has responsibilities? Only people can have responsibilities. A corporation is an artificial person and in this sense may have artificial responsibilities, but ‘business’ as a whole cannot be said to have responsibilities, even in this vague sense” (2012, p.91). No organization is ethically perfect, but there is a greater sensitivity when one examines heroes and the stakeholders that they disappoint. Here, we MOVE to the discussion and understanding of the role of business in society – specifically, the obligations of business toward our moral ecology. 1. Review the resources listed in the Books and Resources area below to prepare for this week’s assignment(s).. Social Responsibility, Stakeholders, and Economics Jennings (2012) revisits Friedman’s famous words, “What does it mean to say that “BUSINESS ” has responsibilities? Only people can have responsibilities. A corporation is an artificial person and in this sense may have artificial responsibilities, but ‘business’ as a whole cannot be said to have responsibilities, even in this vague sense” (2012, p.91). No organization is ethically perfect, but there is a greater sensitivity when one examines heroes and the stakeholders that they disappoint. Here, we MOVE to the discussion and understanding of the role of business in society – specifically, the obligations of business toward our moral ecology. Assignment MGT5019-8 > Virtue, Values and Economics > Week 4 > Critique the Responsibility to Act Ethically Week 4 Assignment: Critique the Responsibility to Act Ethically Activity Description You are a professor presenting a case study to illustrate the issue of acting responsibly to your graduate ethics class of MBA students. Consider Case 3.13 (p. 138-145) within your text. Develop a PowerPoint presentation in which you critique the responsibility of MLB with regard to the steroid issue. In your presentation, be certain to respond to the following: • Could MLB argue that it is not an enforcement agent, and it has no way of determining whether every player is using steroids at any given time? • Does this argument excuse any responsibility on the part of MLB? • Do you see any rationalizations for the steroid use or the lack of an effective POLICY on its use in MLB? • What is the responsibility of MLB and the players to young PEOPLE who are using steroids? • Discuss the Canseco allegations that MLB just wanted revenue and turned a BLIND eye to steroid use. Apply the various social responsibility theories to this point and discuss the flaws in this competitive model. Provide specific examples to detail your presentation. Incorporate appropriate animations, transitions, and graphics as well as “speaker notes” for each slide. The speaker notes may be comprised of brief paragraphs or bulleted lists. Support your presentation with a minimum of three (3) scholarly resources in addition to your text. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including older articles, may be included. Length: 12-15 slides (with a separate reference slide) Notes Length: 150-200 words for each slide Be sure to include citations for quotations and paraphrases with references in APA format and style where appropriate. Save the file as PPT with the correct course code information. Learning Outcomes 1.0 Summarize the actions taken to meet ethical considerations relative to social performance, financial performance, and reputation. 4.0 Discriminate the increasing extent to which social, ethical, and public issues must be considered in stakeholder relationships. 5.0 Evaluate the complexities in enforcing ethics.

INTRODUCTION:
Social Responsibility, Stakeholders, and Economics

Jennings (2012) revisits Friedman’s famous words, “What does it mean to say that “BUSINESS ” has responsibilities? Only people can have responsibilities. A corporation is an artificial person and in this sense may have artificial responsibilities, but ‘business’ as a whole cannot be said to have responsibilities, even in this vague sense” (2012, p.91). No organization is ethically perfect, but there is a greater sensitivity when one examines heroes and the stakeholders that they disappoint. Here, we MOVE to the discussion and understanding of the role of business in society - specifically, the obligations of business toward our moral ecology.
1. Review the resources listed in the Books and Resources area below to prepare for this week’s assignment(s)..
Social Responsibility, Stakeholders, and Economics

Jennings (2012) revisits Friedman’s famous words, “What does it mean to say that “BUSINESS ” has responsibilities? Only people can have responsibilities. A corporation is an artificial person and in this sense may have artificial responsibilities, but ‘business’ as a whole cannot be said to have responsibilities, even in this vague sense” (2012, p.91). No organization is ethically perfect, but there is a greater sensitivity when one examines heroes and the stakeholders that they disappoint. Here, we MOVE to the discussion and understanding of the role of business in society - specifically, the obligations of business toward our moral ecology.



Assignment
MGT5019-8 > Virtue, Values and Economics > Week 4 > Critique the Responsibility to Act Ethically

Week 4 Assignment: Critique the Responsibility to Act Ethically

Activity Description
You are a professor presenting a case study to illustrate the issue of acting responsibly to your graduate ethics class of MBA students. Consider Case 3.13 (p. 138-145) within your text. Develop a PowerPoint presentation in which you critique the responsibility of MLB with regard to the steroid issue.

In your presentation, be certain to respond to the following:
• Could MLB argue that it is not an enforcement agent, and it has no way of determining whether every player is using steroids at any given time?
• Does this argument excuse any responsibility on the part of MLB?
• Do you see any rationalizations for the steroid use or the lack of an effective POLICY on its use in MLB?
• What is the responsibility of MLB and the players to young PEOPLE who are using steroids?
• Discuss the Canseco allegations that MLB just wanted revenue and turned a BLIND eye to steroid use. Apply the various social responsibility theories to this point and discuss the flaws in this competitive model.
Provide specific examples to detail your presentation.

Incorporate appropriate animations, transitions, and graphics as well as “speaker notes” for each slide. The speaker notes may be comprised of brief paragraphs or bulleted lists.

Support your presentation with a minimum of three (3) scholarly resources in addition to your text. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including older articles, may be included.

Length: 12-15 slides (with a separate reference slide)
Notes Length: 150-200 words for each slide

Be sure to include citations for quotations and paraphrases with references in APA format and style where appropriate. Save the file as PPT with the correct course code information.


Learning Outcomes
1.0 Summarize the actions taken to meet ethical considerations relative to social performance, financial performance, and reputation.
4.0 Discriminate the increasing extent to which social, ethical, and public issues must be considered in stakeholder relationships.
5.0 Evaluate the complexities in enforcing ethics.

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You have just graduated from college and are looking to buy your first car. Money is tight right now, so you are concerned with initial cost as well as ongoing expenses. At the same time, you don’t want to drive a slow, ugly car like your parents do. You have narrowed your choices down to two vehicles: a Honda Enigma and a Porsche Booster. Based on the rankings in the table (found under Chapter 2, Problem 1 in the textbook), calculate the value index for each car. Which car provides you with the greatest value? Use formulas to calculate the answer to one decimal point. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ postings. can you think of (and share) ways you might use a value index in either a professional or personal situation? Importance to you Honda Porsche BOOSTR o Fuel economy 3 5 2 Reliability 5 5 2 Speed and 4 2 5 handling Aesthetics 4 2 5 After-sales 2 4 4 support Purchase price 4 4 1

You have just graduated from college and are looking to buy your first car. Money is tight right now, so you are concerned with initial cost as well as ongoing expenses. At the same time, you don’t want to drive a slow, ugly car like your parents do. You have narrowed your choices down to two vehicles: a Honda Enigma and a Porsche Booster. Based on the rankings in the table (found under Chapter 2, Problem 1 in the textbook), calculate the value index for each car. Which car provides you with the greatest value? Use formulas to calculate the answer to one decimal point. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ postings.
can you think of (and share) ways you might use a value index in either a professional or personal situation?

Importance to you      Honda     Porsche
BOOSTR	o
Fuel economy    3   		 5             2
Reliability          5  		 5             2
Speed and          4   	 	 2             5
handling
Aesthetics          4    		2             5
After-sales         2    		4             4
support
Purchase price  4   		4              1

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Primary Discussion Response is due by Friday (11:59:59pm Central). Assignment: Research the role and purposes of social media in the professional world and investigate the media presence of an entity (company, political campaign, organization, or governmental agency related to your field of study). Primary Discussion Response For this assignment, you will conduct research online and through the CTU Library databases on the importance and benefits of having an online presence as a company, organization, or governmental agency. This research should focus on the general benefits of an online presence and should not be specific to the individual entity. For the second part of the assignment, you will select 1 entity (company, organization, or governmental agency related to your field of study) and perform an analysis of its use of its Web site and social media pages, searching for the strengths and weakness, advantages and liabilities, and general effectiveness of its online presence. Fill out this Unit 3 Discussion Board Template following these steps: Find 4 credible sources that discuss the importance and benefits of having an online presence and using social media as a company, organization, or governmental agency. At least 2 of those sources must come from the library. Use citation generators or build a correct APA citation for each of the sources Under each citation, provide a 2-3-sentence summary of the article’s main ideas. Find and state the name of an entity (company, organization, or governmental agency related to your field of study), and in a couple sentences, explain your interest in the entity. Provide a hyperlink to 3 online sites used by the entity, including its main Web site. Sites you may investigate could include Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest, Snapchat, YouTube, LinkedIn, podcasts, interactive chats, or any other social media platform. Present a 3-5-sentence summary of the overall effectiveness of the entity’s online presence, the quality of the written communication used across its various platforms, and a brief identification of areas where it could improve its online and social media strategy. The absence of a presence on a social media site may also warrant discussion. Do not attach the template. Instead, copy and paste your filled-out template directly into the Discussion Board. Peer Responses Respond to 2 classmates. In your responses to your classmates, remember to be constructive and polite. Use the following questions to assist you with your responses: What about their summaries seemed useful or interesting? Which quotations or pieces of information seemed the most persuasive? Which analysis seems the most effective to you? Why?

Primary Discussion Response is due by Friday (11:59:59pm Central).

Assignment: Research the role and purposes of social media in the professional world and investigate the media presence of an entity (company, political campaign, organization, or governmental agency related to your field of study).

Primary Discussion Response

For this assignment, you will conduct research online and through the CTU Library databases on the importance and benefits of having an online presence as a company, organization, or governmental agency. This research should focus on the general benefits of an online presence and should not be specific to the individual entity.

For the second part of the assignment, you will select 1 entity (company, organization, or governmental agency related to your field of study) and perform an analysis of its use of its Web site and social media pages, searching for the strengths and weakness, advantages and liabilities, and general effectiveness of its online presence.

Fill out this Unit 3 Discussion Board Template following these steps:

Find 4 credible sources that discuss the importance and benefits of having an online presence and using social media as a company, organization, or governmental agency. At least 2 of those sources must come from the library. Use citation generators or build a correct APA citation for each of the sources Under each citation, provide a 2-3-sentence summary of the article’s main ideas. Find and state the name of an entity (company, organization, or governmental agency related to your field of study), and in a couple sentences, explain your interest in the entity. Provide a hyperlink to 3 online sites used by the entity, including its main Web site. Sites you may investigate could include Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest, Snapchat, YouTube, LinkedIn, podcasts, interactive chats, or any other social media platform. Present a 3-5-sentence summary of the overall effectiveness of the entity’s online presence, the quality of the written communication used across its various platforms, and a brief identification of areas where it could improve its online and social media strategy. The absence of a presence on a social media site may also warrant discussion. Do not attach the template. Instead, copy and paste your filled-out template directly into the Discussion Board. Peer Responses

Respond to 2 classmates. In your responses to your classmates, remember to be constructive and polite. Use the following questions to assist you with your responses:

What about their summaries seemed useful or interesting? Which quotations or pieces of information seemed the most persuasive? Which analysis seems the most effective to you? Why?

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After reading and reviewing the material in the Reading & Study folder, reflect upon what you have learned and include pertinent aspects of the material in your response to the following: What are 3 themes that stand out in helping you understand Arab Muslims better? Include 1 theme out of these that helps you better understand Islamic extremist terrorism. What is 1 question you would like to ask Rheam that Dr. Garzon did not? Note: Terrorism is not being excused in asking you to understand something about it; indeed, you should have a balanced perspective. My text is Hays, D. G., & Erford, B. T. (2018). Developing multicultural counseling competence: A systems approach (3rd ed.) and McGoldrick, M., Giordano, J., & Garcia-Preto, N. (Eds.) (2005). Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed.). Here is an example of what someone else wrote but please do not write anything they wrote ………….. To understand Arab Muslims better it is important to have a better understanding of the culture versus religion. One area that becomes blurred between culture and religion is honor killings. Garzon (2010a) informs us that although many people may practice Islam religion, honor killings are more of a cultural practice which is also found in some Hindu and Sikh cultures. Unfortunately, sometimes the religious community will support the honor killings and the government does little to punish people for these outrageous crimes (Garzon, 2010a). Islam religion was founded by Muhammad in the 7th century. The Islamic law was originally written to help people lead lives of peace and taught respect for others. The very word Islam means peace which is contradictory of promoting violence (Hays & Erford, 2018). Regrettably, culture and society have interfered with the religious teaching which has led to violent acts carried out on Women especially. Honor killings can occur when a woman does not adhere to the social culture norms, particularly concerning sex and dating, by adopting the western culture ways (Garzon, 2010a). A second theme in understanding Arab Muslims better is to acknowledge the stereotypes. First of all, not all Middle Eastern people are Arabs and around 80% of Middle Eastern Arabs are Muslim or adhere to the Islamic religion. Furthermore, the majority of Muslims do not even live in the Middle East, therefore, labeling all Arabs as Muslim is incorrect (Hays & Erford, 2018). Another stereotype is that all women are denied the right to education and are not allowed to choose what they wear or who they marry. Dr. Garzon (2010a) notes in his presentation that many women do have their rights, however, there are extreme cases where women are stripped from their rights and even suffer great domestic violence which can include an honor killing. According to the Islamic faith, men and women are considered equal in God’s eyes, however, it is known that local customs do sometimes play a role in suppressing women and limiting their rights in society (Hays & Erford, 2018). A third theme which can help understand Islamic extremist terrorism is self-education and taking the perspective that not all Muslims or Middle Eastern people are in fact terrorists. Discrimination occurs when people automatically assume and stereotype all people of Middle Eastern decent as vicious harmful people. According to Garzon (2010a), the 9/11 terrorist attacks played a role in the heightened stereotyping and discrimination of Muslims, particularly in America. One thing to keep in mind is that in every culture or religion there may be several separate groups or factions operating similarly on a few aspects and extreme opposites in other areas. Awareness of these different religious variations between groups and within groups, can help to better understand why extreme terrorist groups exist (Garzon, 2010a). One question that I would like to ask Rheam that Dr. Garzon (2010b) did not is about the stereotype of Muslim dress, especial women. I noticed that Rheam was dressed more like the American women than what is depicted on television and in the movies. Many people automatically assume that all Middle Eastern women are required to wear a head covering and long dark garments. Hays & Erford (2018) reveal that many Arab women are allowed to dress as they wish, and many choose to dress modern, especially those living in America. I would ask Rheam whether she grew up wearing modern clothing or did she make the choice to change as an adult? I also wonder if the women in Jordan get treated negatively based on their choice of modern or traditional clothing? I believe it is important to try to understand another culture by exploring for yourself and engaging with people of that culture before making assumptions and possibly fall into the cycle of stereotyping and discrimination. As Christians, we need to remember that Jesus died for everyone and that God’s love and grace extend beyond cultural and religious boundaries.

After reading and reviewing the material in the Reading & Study folder, reflect upon what you have learned and include pertinent aspects of the material in your response to the following:

What are 3 themes that stand out in helping you understand Arab Muslims better? Include 1 theme out of these that helps you better understand Islamic extremist terrorism. What is 1 question you would like to ask Rheam that Dr. Garzon did not?

Note: Terrorism is not being excused in asking you to understand something about it; indeed, you should have a balanced perspective.

My text is Hays, D. G., & Erford, B. T. (2018). Developing multicultural counseling competence: A systems approach (3rd ed.) and McGoldrick, M., Giordano, J., & Garcia-Preto, N. (Eds.) (2005). Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed.).

Here is an example of what someone else wrote but please do not write anything they wrote …………..

To understand Arab Muslims better it is important to have a better understanding of the culture versus religion. One area that becomes blurred between culture and religion is honor killings. Garzon (2010a) informs us that although many people may practice Islam religion, honor killings are more of a cultural practice which is also found in some Hindu and Sikh cultures. Unfortunately, sometimes the religious community will support the honor killings and the government does little to punish people for these outrageous crimes (Garzon, 2010a). Islam religion was founded by Muhammad in the 7th century. The Islamic law was originally written to help people lead lives of peace and taught respect for others. The very word Islam means peace which is contradictory of promoting violence (Hays & Erford, 2018). Regrettably, culture and society have interfered with the religious teaching which has led to violent acts carried out on Women especially. Honor killings can occur when a woman does not adhere to the social culture norms, particularly concerning sex and dating, by adopting the western culture ways (Garzon, 2010a).

A second theme in understanding Arab Muslims better is to acknowledge the stereotypes. First of all, not all Middle Eastern people are Arabs and around 80% of Middle Eastern Arabs are Muslim or adhere to the Islamic religion. Furthermore, the majority of Muslims do not even live in the Middle East, therefore, labeling all Arabs as Muslim is incorrect (Hays & Erford, 2018). Another stereotype is that all women are denied the right to education and are not allowed to choose what they wear or who they marry. Dr. Garzon (2010a) notes in his presentation that many women do have their rights, however, there are extreme cases where women are stripped from their rights and even suffer great domestic violence which can include an honor killing. According to the Islamic faith, men and women are considered equal in God’s eyes, however, it is known that local customs do sometimes play a role in suppressing women and limiting their rights in society (Hays & Erford, 2018).

A third theme which can help understand Islamic extremist terrorism is self-education and taking the perspective that not all Muslims or Middle Eastern people are in fact terrorists. Discrimination occurs when people automatically assume and stereotype all people of Middle Eastern decent as vicious harmful people. According to Garzon (2010a), the 9/11 terrorist attacks played a role in the heightened stereotyping and discrimination of Muslims, particularly in America. One thing to keep in mind is that in every culture or religion there may be several separate groups or factions operating similarly on a few aspects and extreme opposites in other areas. Awareness of these different religious variations between groups and within groups, can help to better understand why extreme terrorist groups exist (Garzon, 2010a).

One question that I would like to ask Rheam that Dr. Garzon (2010b) did not is about the stereotype of Muslim dress, especial women. I noticed that Rheam was dressed more like the American women than what is depicted on television and in the movies. Many people automatically assume that all Middle Eastern women are required to wear a head covering and long dark garments. Hays & Erford (2018) reveal that many Arab women are allowed to dress as they wish, and many choose to dress modern, especially those living in America. I would ask Rheam whether she grew up wearing modern clothing or did she make the choice to change as an adult? I also wonder if the women in Jordan get treated negatively based on their choice of modern or traditional clothing? I believe it is important to try to understand another culture by exploring for yourself and engaging with people of that culture before making assumptions and possibly fall into the cycle of stereotyping and discrimination. As Christians, we need to remember that Jesus died for everyone and that God’s love and grace extend beyond cultural and religious boundaries.

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